Managing a diverse team of employees might not be easy, and managers have to keep in mind some specific factors when dealing with the restaurant’s operations. In the last century, there were only a few external management resources, models and methods available for managers to develop their management practices. Thus, Henri Fayol, the father of modern management, recognized this need and built the foundation of modern management theory as 14 principles.
In this article, we explain the management theory of Henri Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management in a practical way. This theory is considered one of the comprehensive and influential theories of management that contributes to the modern management concept. Moreover, these principles of management are powerful management tools that are able to guide your decision-making process and management actions.
1. Division of Work:
According to this principle, the whole work is divided into small tasks. The specialization of the workforce according to the skills of a person leads to specialization, which increases the efficiency of labor.
In practice, you shall divide your employees according to their areas of specialties and their different skills. You can distinguish different levels of expertise within the knowledge areas from generalist to specialist among chefs, cooks, waiters, servers, hosts, etc. Consequently, create specific personal and professional development within your employees to increase productivity and profitability of your restaurant. According to Henri Fayol, specialization enhances the efficiency of your team and increases their productivity, accuracy, and speed. You can apply this management principle of the 14 principles of management to both technical and managerial activities.
2. Authority and Responsibility:
This principle is explained as follows “This is the issue of commands followed by responsibility for their consequences. Authority means the right of a superior to give enhance order to his subordinates; responsibility means obligation for performance.”
In order to get things done in your restaurant, you, as a manager, have the authority to give orders to your staff members, where responsibility comes with this authority; Authority must be equal to Responsibility. Thus, you need to find a balance between Authority, the power to make a decision, and Responsibility, the obligation to perform a task.
In your restaurant, authority and responsibility need to be aligned appropriately; if an employee is responsible for specific tasks, this employee shall have the authority to make them happen and it is, therefore, necessary to make agreements about this.
Why there should be a match between authority and responsibility?
- If you give an employee some responsibility without sufficient authority, he cannot perform better and discharge his duties with efficiency, and in turn, could not achieve the desired goal.
- If you delegate excess authority to an employee without matching responsibility then, somehow, the delegated authority will be misused.
Positive effects of this principle:
- No misusing of authority.
- Completing job effectively and efficiently.
- Employees can be held accountable.
- Systematized and effective achievement of your restaurant organizational objectives.
Negative effects of violation of this principle:
- Misusing of authority.
- Responsibility cannot be effectively fulfilled.
- No one can be held accountable.
- Conflicts between you, as a manager, and your employees.
This third principle of the 14 principles of management means obedience, proper conduct in relation to others, respect of authority, etc. It is essential for the smooth functioning of all organizations. Discipline is a part of the core values of a mission and vision through respecting the rules and regulations of your restaurant, which may be Self-discipline or Enforced discipline.
Your employees shall not slack nor bend the rules that run your restaurant. You need good supervision and impartial judgment to ensure discipline. You may also need a joint effort of employees to establish discipline, which you inspire by applying penalties.
4. Unity of Command:
This principle states that each employee should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one manager. If an employee receives orders from more than one superior, this might lead to confusion and conflict. Using this principle, a manager could easily identify the responsibility for mistakes.
5. Unity of Direction:
This management principle of the 14 principles of management is all about putting all related activities under one group with one plan of action for them under the control of one manager who is completely responsible for this plan and he shall monitor the progress of the defined and planned activities. It is about focus and unity, where one group of employees that forms a team is responsible for the same activities that can be linked to the same objectives. Unity of direction guarantees that your entire restaurant’s operations will move in the same direction.
6. Subordination of Individual Interest to Mutual Interest:
The interests of your restaurant must be of top priority and they should prevail over the personal interests of individuals. This applies to all levels of the entire restaurant’s employees, including the managers.
The seventh management principle of the 14 principles of management argues that employees must be paid sufficiently in order to keep employees motivated and hence productive. Since motivation and productivity are connected. The amount and methods of remuneration payable should be fair, reasonable and rewarding of effort that has been made. Remuneration includes both financial and non-financial compensation.
As a restaurant’s manager, before deciding an employee’s rate of pay, you should consider the living cost, the supply of qualified personnel, the general conditions of your business, your restaurant’s success.
8. The Degree of Centralization:
Centralization involves the concentration of decision-making authority at the top management. However, decentralization implies the sharing of authorities for the decision-making process with your employees. According to this principle, you need to find a balance between management and authority for the decision-making process in your restaurant. The degree of centralization or decentralization you should adopt at your restaurant depends on the volume and size of your restaurant including its hierarchy.
9. Line of Authority/Scalar Chain:
This refers to “the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank. The principle suggests that there should be a clear line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers at all levels.”
According to this principle, there should be a clear line in the aspect of authority at all levels. Where each manager has a certain amount of authority. You shall establish a scalar chain in your restaurant so that all members would know their position in the restaurant and in the chain of command and adhere to the line of authority. Moreover, every employee should be able to contact one manager in any situation without challenging the hierarchy of managers. Since employees should inform their upper-level managers about their work activities, performance, emergencies, and problems.
In this principle of the 14 principles of management, Henri Fayol claims that you, as a manager, should provide your employees with the right resources regarding their duties so that they can function properly in your restaurant. Additionally, order ensures safety, efficiency, cleanliness, and tidiness in the work environment for all employees, and everything should be in its place. The order should be acceptable and under the rules of your restaurant. You should also treat all the people related to a specific type of work as equally as possible. Not to mention that order guarantees efficiency and coordination.
Equity ensures a just workplace as managers must treat employees kindly, equally, fairly and impartially. In addition, you, as a restaurant manager, should put every employee in the right place in your restaurant so that he can do things right and you shall supervise and monitor this process. Maintain discipline when needed, act kindly when it seems right, and give equal attention to all employees.
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel:
The management principle ‘Stability of Tenure of Personnel’ of the 14 principles of management represents that in order for your restaurant to run smoothly, employees must not frequently enter and exit your restaurant, as you should give priority to personnel planning. That is you, as a manager, must do your best to minimize employee turnover and retain productive employees. This will result in reducing labor costs since recruitment and selection costs are usually associated with hiring new workers.
In today’s workplace, the initiative has become increasingly important. Therefore, successful restaurants need employees to think and take action without being told what to do. After all, this kind of flexibility and courage is what drives teams to innovate and overcome competition. Moreover, you, as a restaurant manager should encourage your employees to take initiative.
14. Esprit de Corps/Team Spirit:
The last management principle of the 14 principles of management implies that managers have to ensure the involvement and unity of the employees and they are accountable for developing morale in the work environment, individually and collectively. You shall attempt to promote team spirit, harmony and general good feelings among your restaurant staff. These practices help in improving an atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding and endure finishing tasks on time.
You can apply these 14 principles of management to manage your restaurant efficiently. They are beneficial management tools that can help you in operations management, control, problem-solving, forecasting, decision-making, planning, and coordination.